Daniel Boone escorting settlers through the Cumberland Gap In the colonial era, beforethe west was of high priority for settlers and politicians. The American frontier began when JamestownVirginia was settled by the English in In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, until aboutthe frontier was essentially any part of the interior of the continent beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the Atlantic coast. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St.
Introduction The Gungywamp Complex in Groton, Connecticut contains house foundations, colonial roads, and historic stone walls. Researchers, archaeologists, and historians are in general agreement about the historic origins of these features.
A strong Native American presence within the area dating back thousands of years is likewise agreed upon by all the researchers. The Native American utilization of several rockshelters within the complex is well attested to by the archaeological evidence. These stone structures have been the subject of numerous theories as to their origins, date of construction and purpose.
These theories ranged from those based on archaeological evidence and scientific argument to those based on wild speculation. These theories have been often repeated and cited but rarely subjected to scientific review and analysis.
The theories can be grouped into two broad categories. The first group contains theories that offer various utilitarian historical explanations for the structures. The second group focuses on Native American ceremonial explanations for the features. This article is a scientific analysis, review, and critic of both groups of theories.
Each theory is evaluated to determine the soundness of its evidence, plausibility of its hypothesis, and tested to see if it withstands basic scientific inquiry. Through this process the theories with merit can be sorted from those without.
East side near northern end of South Complex, as shown on site map. Each socket was a inch deep depression packed with small rocks, cobbles and rubble.
The SS tend to be shorter and smaller at each end of the rows; the taller cluster more toward the center of each row. This is unconfirmed by the author.
This disclosed that a single layer of cobbles had been laid directly on sandy, orange loess. Several stones in the north row were pulled out by vandals. These stones were painted orange on the bottoms to discourage further vandalism. But the example Warner used shows the standing stones with their broadsides all facing outward and abutted right next to each other.
This does not at all bear any resemblance to the rows of standing stones at Gungywamp. In the same issue of the Stonewatch Newsletter, Paulette Buchanan briefly mentions another variant of this theory Buchanan Buchanan provided a detail explanation of the theory in a subsequent article.
The name of this type of stone wall construction is called coping and dyking.
This type of construction makes a very stable and durable wall. There are several significant problems with this statement. First and foremost, Buchanan misunderstood the Scotish terms dry stane dyke, coping and dyking. The term dyking simple refers to the act of building a dry masonry stone wall.
Garner offers the following remarks on the subject of coping, copestone, cope: Firstly they add considerable weight to the wall, weight which is specially vital to stablise the lighter stones in the upper half.
Secondly, they act as throughstones and must make good contact with both sides [both sides refers to a double wide wall]. The ideal copestone is fairly thin and flat and is placed upright on the wall.
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