This earlier article is still important and should be read because not all of its information and insights have been transferred to this article.
Section 2 4 The Greeks in Egypt. Introduction The direct influence of Ancient Egyptian literature on Archaic Greece has never been fully acknowledged. Greek philosophy in particular of the Classical Period has -especially since the Renaissance- been understood as an excellent standard sprung out of the genius of the Greeks, the Greek miracle.
Hellenocentrism was and still is a powerful view, underlining the intellectual superiority of the Greeks and hence of all cultures immediately linked with this Graeco-Roman heritage, such as Alexandrian JudaismEastern Christianity but also Islam via Harran and the translators.
Only recently, and thanks to the critical-historical approachhave scholars reconsidered Greek Antiquity, to discover the "other" side of the Greek spirit, with its popular Dionysian and elitist Orphic mysteries, mystical schools Pythagoraschorals, lyric poetric, drama, proze and tragedies.
Nietzsche, who noticed the recuperation of Late Hellenism by the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment, simplistically divided the Greek spirit into two antagonistic tendencies: For him, Apollo was a metaphor for the eternalizing ideas, for the mummification of life by concepts, good examples and a life "hereafter", "beyond" or "out there".
A life here and now, immanent and this-life. And what about Judaism? The author s of the Torah avoided the confrontation with the historical fact that Moses, although a Jew, was educated as an Egyptian, and identified Pharaoh with the Crocodile, who wants all things for himself.
It is precisely this influence of Greek thought on Judaism which triggered the emergence of revolutionary sects cf. Qumransolitary desert hermits and spirito-social communities, seeking to restore the "original" identity of the Jewish nation, as it had been embodied under Solomon and the first templeand turned against the Great Sanhedrin of the temple of Jeruzalem.
Ancient Egyptian civilization was so grand, imposing and strong, that its impact on the Greeks was tremendous. In order to try to understand what happened when these two cultures met, we must first sketch the situation of both parties.
This will allow us to make sound correspondences. All people who did not speak Greek were considered barbarians, with features that the Greeks despised. They were either loathsome tyrants, devious magicians, or dull and effeminate pleasure-seeking individuals.
But Egypt had more to offer ; like India, it was full of old and venerable wisdom. What exactly did the Greeks incorporate when visiting Egypt? They surely witnessed at the earliest in ca.
In the same passage of the Timaeus, Plato acknowledges the Egyptians seem to speak in myth, "although there is truth in it. From it, he copied the contents of the Timaeus The Greeks, and this is the hypothesis we are set to prove, linearized major parts of the Ancient Egyptian proto-rational mindset.
Alexandrian Hermetism was a Hellenistic blend of Egyptian traditions, Jewish lore and Greek, mostly Platonic, thought. Later, the influence of Ptolemaic Alexandria on all spiritual traditions of the Mediterranean would become unmistaken.
On this point, I agree with Bernal in his controversial Black Athena Far more widespread than these direct continuations, however, was the general admiration for Ancient Egypt among the educated elites.
Thus no one before seriously questioned either the belief that Greek civilization and philosophy derived from Egypt, or that the chief ways in which they had been transmitted were through Egyptian colonizations of Greece and later Greek study in Egypt.
Recently, Bernal has advocated a "Revised Ancient Model". According to this, the "glory that is Greece", the Greek Miracle, is the product of an extravagant mixture.
The culture of Greece is somehow the outcome of repeated outside influence. According to this, Greece has received repeated outside influence both from the east Mediterranean and from the Balkans. It is this extravagant mixture that has produced this attractive and fruitful culture and the glory that is Greece.
Bernal apparently forgets that Greek recuperation is also an overtaking of ante-rationality by rationality, a leaving behind of the earlier stage of cognitive development namely mythical, pre-rational and proto-rational thought.
The Greeks had superior thought, and this "sui generis". Hence, Greek civilization cannot be seen as the outcome of an extravagant mixture. The mixture was there because the Greeks were curious and open.
They linearized the grand cultures of their day, and Egypt had been the greatest and oldest culture. On the one hand, Greek thinking successfully escaped from the contextual and practical limitations imposed by an ante-rational cognitive apparatus unable to work with an abstract concept, and hence unable to root its conceptual framework in the "zero-point", which serves as the beginning of the normation "here and now" of all possible coordinate-axis, which all run through it cf.Analysis of Akhenaten Analysis of Akhenaten The way this article is written, its almost as a story is being told with commentary of Egyptian scholars.
This format makes it more interesting, and gives the article a larger scale. The whole idea that Akhenaten would go against the old Egyptian. Akhenaten inherited the New Kingdom throne in the 14th century B.C.E.
at the height of the polytheistic dynasty’s power. Recent pharaohs had expanded the nation’s boundaries and created massive temples for their pantheon of deities, yet Akhenaten changed everything for the sake of a sun and light-based Egyptian monotheism.
While later. Joseph, son of Jacob and Rachel, lived in the land of Canaan with ten half-brothers, one full brother, and at least one half-sister. He was Rachel's firstborn and Jacob's eleventh son.
Of all the sons, Joseph was preferred by his father, and this is represented by a "long coat of many colors". When Joseph was seventeen years old he had two dreams that made his brothers plot his demise.
The present in-depth work examines the trustworthiness of Biblical history by using the Hebrew exodus from Egypt as a test case. More specifically, an examination of the exodus-pharaoh’s life will reveal whether Biblical history can be harmonized and synchronized with Egyptian history, and whether Biblical chronology is clear and trustworthy when relevant passages are interpreted literally.
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