An annotated bibliography on the use of guerrilla warfare in the civil war

The causes of the war, its conduct, and its aftermath remain hotly contested issues to this day.

An annotated bibliography on the use of guerrilla warfare in the civil war

Fought largely by independent, irregular bands, sometimes linked to regular forces, it is a warfare of harassment through surprise. In the American experience, this type of warfare has been used since the French and Indian War —63when colonists adopted American Indian tactics to strike back against French forces and their Indian allies.

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Army Rangers Fort BenningGeorgia. During the Revolutionary Warthe guerrilla legacy was reflected in Col. Nathanael Greene even developed principles of guerrilla warfare in his successful campaign against the British in the South — During the Civil Warthe outnumbered Confederate forces featured several guerrilla leaders, including Col.

John Singleton Mosby and Gen. A particularly fierce guerrilla war was waged in the border states of Kansas and Missouriwhere Southern sympathizers organized into partisan bands that attacked Federal supply trains and harassed Union sympathizers.

The former is best known for his daylight raid and destruction of the city of Lawrence, Kansasand the fact that his followers included Frank and Jesse James and the Younger brothers, destined to become prominent outlaws in the postwar years. Considered one of the premier practitioners of guerrilla warfarethe American Indian proved a formidable and elusive foe.

Those army officers who were most successful at countering the Indians did so primarily through their adoption of unconventional tactics.

Among these innovators were Gen. George Crook, who pioneered the use of pack mules to enhance the mobility of his columns and employed Apache Indian scouts against hostile Apache clans led by Geronimo; and Gen. Significantly, although the Plains Indians Wars lasted well over thirty years, the army regarded this sort of warfare as a temporary condition and never developed a coherent doctrine for countering a guerrilla foe.

It was the U. Marine Corps, engaged in a number of expeditionary missions in Asia and Latin America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, that began to codify the techniques, tactics, and procedures necessary for conducting counterguerrilla operations.

At the same time, the army and Marine Corps began to form and train units for irregular or guerrilla war operations, most notably Brig.

An annotated bibliography on the use of guerrilla warfare in the civil war

After World War IIthe American military gave little thought to guerrilla war theory, despite the examples of the French in Indochina and Algeriathe British in Malaya, and the defeat of the Huks in the Philippines. Even the brief involvement of U.

It was not until the United States had become engaged in Southeast Asia that military planners began grappling seriously with the problem of guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgency.

An annotated bibliography on the use of guerrilla warfare in the civil war

The immediate result was President John F. Each soldier was required to be an accomplished parachutist and capable of speaking at least one foreign language. Special Forces operational teams were organized and trained to act as advisers and planners for indigenous guerrilla units and achieved some measure of success, especially among the Hmong and Montagnard tribesmen of the Vietnamese highlands.

These minor successes were not enough to turn the tide of battle, and with the end of the Vietnam Warthe Special Forces were relegated to a secondary status in the armed forces.

In the s, in response to increased guerrilla activity in Central and South Americathe U.Leon Trotsky called guerrilla warfare "the truly peasant form of war," and in Marxist terms this was at best a limited endorsement.

It was primitive, and though it might sometimes be necessary it was not inherently revolutionary. Irregular warfare is defined in US joint doctrine as “A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations.”.

Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric warfare approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode the adversary’s power, influence, and will. Vietnam War Bibliography by Richard Jensen Jensen is a scholar with many books and articles; he was professor of history for over 35 years at several schools, including the University of Illinois, Harvard, Michigan, West Point, and Moscow State University.

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Overall, guerrilla warfare played a relatively small role in the events of the Civil War. However, this particular type of combat still made an impact of both the lives of fighters and civilians.

Being mainly active in the south in order to combat northern invasion, guerrilla led violence reached its height from Bibliography of the American Civil War. Guerrilla Warfare in the Southern Appalachians, – Praeger, Freeman, Frank R. Microbes and Minie Balls: An Annotated Bibliography of Civil War Medicine.

New Brunswick, New Jersey: Fairleigh–Dickinson University Press, The focus of this annotated bibliography, however, is on the Latin American guerrilla insurgencies that emerged with the Cuban Revolution and subsequent efforts throughout the region by dissident factions, usually Marxist in ideological orientation, to overthrow governments deemed capitalist and reactionary.

Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War - Wikipedia