Group project Class participation This course examines the large and growing body of law addressing relationships between human activities and the environment, including the legal regimes governing air, water, toxic chemicals, hazardous waste, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystems, and climate change.
This can be particularly useful if the portfolio is to be shared with external audiences unfamiliar with the coursework such as parents, other educators and community members.
What processes will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio? One of the greatest attributes of the portfolio is its potential for focusing on the processes of learning. Too often in education we emphasize the products students create or the outcomes they achieve.
But we do not give sufficient attention to the processes required to create those products or outcomes, the processes involved in self-diagnosis and self-improvement, or the metacognitive processes of thinking.
As a result, the products or outcomes are not as good as we or the students would like because they are often unsure how to get started, how to self-diagnose or self-correct or how to determine when a piece of work is "finished.
Selection of Contents Once again, identifying the purpose s for the portfolio should drive the selection process. As listed in the tables above, different samples of student work will likely be selected for different purposes.
Additionally, how samples are selected might also differ depending on the purpose. For example, for an evaluation portfolio, the teacher might decide which samples need to be included to evaluate student progress. On the other hand, including the student in the decision-making process of determining appropriate types of samples for inclusion might be more critical for a growth portfolio to promote meaningful reflection.
Finally, a showcase portfolio might be designed to include significant input from the student on which samples best highlight achievement and progress, or the teacher might primarily make those decisions.
Furthermore, audiences beyond the teacher and student might have input into the content of the porfolio, from team or department members, principals and district committees to external agencies to parents and community members. External audiences are most likely to play a role for evaluation portfolios.
However, it is important to remember there are no hard rules about portfolios. Anything can be included in a portfolio.
Anyone can be involved in the processes of selection, reflection and evaluation of a portfolio. Flexibility applies to portfolios as it does to any authentic assessment. That is, you should be true to your purpose sbut you should feel no constraints on how you meet them with a portfolio assignment.
How might the selection take place?
What I will describe below are just a few of the many possible avenues for selecting which samples will be included in a portfolio. But these examples should give you a good sense of some of the choices and some of the decisions involved.
Which work students select depends on the criteria used to choose each piece see below. A peer might also provide some reflection on a piece of work to be included in the portfolio. Based on what criteria? Simply selecting samples of work as described above can produce meaningful stories about students, and others can benefit from "reading" these stories.
But the students themselves are missing significant benefits of the portfolio process if they are not asked to reflect upon the quality and growth of their work.
As Paulson, Paulson and Meyer stated, "The portfolio is something that is done by the student, not to the student. The student needs to be directly involved in each phase of the portfolio development to learn the most from it, and the reflection phase holds the most promise for promoting student growth.
In the reflection phase students are typically asked to comment on why specific samples were selected or comment on what they liked and did not like in the samples or comment on or identify the processes involved in developing specific products or performances or describe and point to examples of how specific skills or knowledge improved or did not or identify strengths and weaknesses in samples of work or set goals for themselves corresponding to the strengths and weaknesses or identify strategies for reaching those goals or assess their past and current self-efficacy for a task or skill or complete a checklist or survey about their work or some combination of the above Reflection sheets Probably the most common portfolio reflection task is the completion of a sheet to be attached to the sample or samples of work which the reflection is addressing.
Why should this sample be included in your portfolio? How does this sample meet the criteria for selection for your portfolio? I chose this piece because What would you work on more if you had additional time? Looking at or thinking about an earlier piece of similar work, how does this new piece of work compare?
How is it better or worse? Where can you see progress or improvement? How did you get "stuck" working on this task? How did you get "unstuck"?
One skill I could not perform very well but now I can is From reviewing this piece I learned What is a realistic goal for the end of the quarter semester, year?
One thing I still need to work on isChoosing Questions and Planning the Evaluation. Chapter 37 Sections. Section 1. Choosing Questions and Planning the Evaluation Who should be involved in choosing questions and planning the evaluation?
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