Phenomenology is commonly understood in either of two ways: The discipline of phenomenology may be defined initially as the study of structures of experience, or consciousness.
Overview[ edit Descriptive phenomenology thesis In its most basic form, phenomenology attempts to create conditions for the objective study of topics usually regarded as subjective: Although phenomenology seeks to be scientific, it does not attempt to study consciousness from the perspective of clinical psychology or neurology.
Instead, it seeks through systematic reflection to determine the essential properties and structures of experience. Phenomenologists reject the concept of objective research.
They believe that analyzing daily human behavior can provide one with a greater understanding of nature. They assert that persons should be explored. This is because persons can be understood through the unique ways they reflect the society they live in.
Phenomenologists prefer to gather "capta", or conscious experience, rather than traditional data. They consider phenomenology to be oriented toward discovery, and therefore they research using methods that are far less restrictive than in other sciences.
The object of consciousness is called the intentional object, and this object is constituted for consciousness in many different ways, through, for instance, perceptionmemoryretention and protentionsignificationetc.
Throughout these different intentionalities, though they have different structures and different ways of being "about" the object, an object is still constituted as the identical object; consciousness is directed at the same intentional object in direct perception as it is in the immediately following retention of this object and the eventual remembering of it.
Though many of the phenomenological methods involve various reductions, phenomenology is, in essence, anti- reductionistic ; the reductions are mere tools to better understand and describe the workings of consciousness, not to reduce any phenomenon to these descriptions.
In other words, when a reference is made to a thing's essence or idea, or when the constitution of an identical coherent thing is specified by describing what one "really" sees as being only these sides and aspects, these surfaces, it does not mean that the thing is only and exclusively what is described here: Phenomenology is a direct reaction to the psychologism and physicalism of Husserl's time.
As a philosophical perspective, phenomenology is its method, though the specific meaning of the term varies according to how it is conceived by a given philosopher. As envisioned by Husserl, phenomenology is a method of philosophical inquiry that rejects the rationalist bias that has dominated Western thought since Plato in favor of a method of reflective attentiveness that discloses the individual's "lived experience.
Sometimes depicted as the "science of experience," the phenomenological method is rooted in intentionality, i. Husserl's theory of consciousness developed from Brentano. Intentionality represents an alternative to the representational theory of consciousness, which holds that reality cannot be grasped directly because it is available only through perceptions of reality that are representations of it in the mind.
Husserl countered that consciousness is not "in" the mind; rather, consciousness is conscious of something other than itself the intentional objectwhether the object is a substance or a figment of imagination i.
Hence the phenomenological method relies on the description of phenomena as they are given to consciousness, in their immediacy. According to Maurice Natansonp.
To "bracket" in this sense means to provisionally suspend or set aside some idea as a way to facilitate the inquiry by focusing only on its most significant components.
The phenomenological method serves to momentarily erase the world of speculation by returning the subject to his or her primordial experience of the matter, whether the object of inquiry is a feeling, an idea, or a perception.Criticism of qualitative research "Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience.
Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most seasoned of researchers. Being Given: Toward a Phenomenology of Givenness (Cultural Memory in the Present) [Jean-Luc Marion, Jeffrey L.
Kosky] on arteensevilla.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Being Given is one of the classic works of phenomenology in the twentieth century. Through readings of Kant. a phenomenological study of the experiences of helping professionals with learning disabilities a dissertation presented by madeline lorraine peters.
Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object.
What is Existential-Phenomenology? What is Phenomenology? "As good a place to begin as any is the meaning of the term phenomenology itself. It is derived from the two Greek words: phainomenon (an "appearance") and logos ("reason" or "word," hence a "reasoned inquiry").
Phenomenology is indeed a reasoned inquiry which discovers the inherent essences of appearances. Martin Heidegger is widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20 th century, while remaining one of the most controversial.
His thinking has contributed to such diverse fields as phenomenology (Merleau-Ponty), existentialism (Sartre, Ortega y Gasset.